Blood Diamond , also known as conflict diamond, is the name given by the United Nations to diamonds mined to serve the purpose of civil wars and wars. originating from lands based on the exploitation of labor by illegal organizations or not protected by the government.

This has led to the deaths of thousands of innocent people in Africa. Blood diamonds are also used by terrorist organizations to purchase weapons for military and war purposes.

  • Diamond jewelry
  • Diamond slabs

The blood diamond phenomenon appeared in the years 1991 - 2002 in Southern African countries, especially the Sierra. This context creates anger about the way mines are managed and exploited. The companies involved in the processes of opening mines and employing these mining workers are operating on the basis of: “Using blood in exchange for diamonds”. And the blood here is seen as the blood of civil wars over the areas of diamond mines between companies and the exploitation of labor and violence in the labor of Sierra workers.

Who are the victims of 'blood diamonds?

In 2012, the international court in The Hague, Netherlands, sentenced former Liberian President Charles Taylor to 50 years in prison for war crimes and crimes against humanity. He is accused of arming rebel groups during the civil war in neighboring Sierra Leone in exchange for rough diamonds hidden in empty mayonnaise jars.

During the trial, British supermodel Naomi Campbell was summoned as a witness. She told the court that she was given "dirty rocks" by two men after a party in 1997.

Prosecutors said the stones were “blood diamonds,” a personal gift from Mr. Taylor. That statement contradicts the former Liberian president's testimony that he had nothing to do with the gems used to finance the conflict.

The civil war in Sierra Leone caused the deaths of about 50,000 people. In addition to the innocent people caught up in conflicts sustained by the “blood diamond” trade, thousands of men, women and children in countries like Sierra Leone are enslaved in search of diamonds. .

Seeing human life as trash, not as important as the achievements of diamonds. There are people who return from the land of blood diamonds, their bodies no longer intact because of disabilities. The hands are dark and calloused from mineral soil and rocks over the years.

Another problem with blood diamonds is that they cannot be controlled. This causes national resources to be depleted. But the profit earned is not much. Blood diamonds are not tested and are smuggled into the market, creating quality and economic instability.

Conflicts and fights over blood diamonds

  • The war in Angola from 1961 to 2002

The war took place in the context of Angola's civil war, with the dispersion of law enforcement forces causing rebels to rebel. Typical examples are the UNITA army and the alliance of the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the Liberation Front of Enclave Cabinda (FLEC).

This war has left at least half a million people dead, and more people suffer daily. It was not until 1998, when the United Nations Security Council imposed sanctions, that the war gradually ended.

  • Blood diamonds in the Republic of Congo (DRC) period 1998 - 2003

Historically, this is the largest armed civil war in Africa with the participation of 9 countries and 20 armed groups. This war caused the deaths of nearly 4 million people, and turned millions more into refugees. The goal of the civil war was to gain control of major diamond mines.

Armed groups and rebels receive funding from neighboring countries to carry out fighting. During its most successful period, this group gained control of the Northeast, but was eventually pushed out. Unlike the civil war above, the civil war in Congo over diamonds has never been subject to sanctions.

  • Sierra Leone Civil War from 1991 to 2002

The civil war began in 1991 and lasted for 11 years in the Sierra. More than half a million people died when the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) overthrew the Joseph Momoh government. And a large number of civilians suffered rape, arrest, and torture for working in the mines.

During that period, diamond mines became easy prey for control. This makes many people question whether the goal of the civil war is for blood diamonds - instead of the government. When the RUF took control in the Southeast Sierra. A large amount of diamonds have been mined. Revealing the doubts and purposes of this civil war.

What has the international community done to improve this situation?

In May 2000, southern African diamond-producing countries met in Kimberley, South Africa to discuss how to prevent conflict-generating diamond trade and ensure that the diamond trade Diamond will not sponsor violence. In 2003, the Kimberley Association introduced Article 1295, signed by 75 diamond importing and exporting countries, diamond traders and non-governmental organizations. The purpose of the agreement is to certify that the quality of diamonds sold on the consumer market is of clean origin, not coming from areas of conflict and stained with African blood.

The Kimberley Process's goal is to increase transparency and effective monitoring in the diamond industry. To eliminate the trade in blood diamonds, and prevent the trade from financing political conflicts.

Countries participating in the Kimberley Process must comply with the following terms:

– Meet minimum requirements and establish National Laws to control diamond import and export.

– Commitment to transparency in the exchange of important statistical data.

– Only trade with Kimberley participants who also meet the basic principles of the agreement.

– Confirm the shipment number with a certificate to prove it is not a Blood Diamond.

Blood diamonds are associated with many "horrifying" historical marks in the past. It has been exploited for wrong purposes and affected many innocent people.

However, international efforts have helped improve the situation in an objective direction.

Today, diamonds are mined properly and sold for much better purposes. The diamond market also has many fluctuations, increasing and decreasing at many different levels. For the upper class, diamonds are something they are always interested in.

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