Diamonds are the most sought-after gemstones on the planet. It possesses beautiful transparency and a hardness unmatched by any other gemstone. With its influence on many industries: jewelry, industry... Diamonds increasingly prove their important position. So you know How are diamonds created? or not? Let's find the answer in the article below!

How are diamonds created?

Sparkling diamonds are made from minerals containing carbon, under high temperature and very high pressure. On earth, everywhere can produce diamonds. Because at a certain depth, there will be a high enough temperature and high enough pressure to form diamonds.

The diamond formation process begins about 100 miles underground (about 160km) where high temperatures and pressure crystallize carbon into rough diamonds. On continents, diamonds begin to form at depths of about 150km (90 miles), where pressures are about 5 gigapascals and temperatures are about 1,200 degrees Celsius (2,200 degrees Fahrenheit).

  • Diamond Plate
  • Diamond jewelry

In the ocean, this process takes place in deeper areas because the temperature needs to be higher, so the pressure must also be high. As the pressures and temperatures gradually decrease, the diamonds also grow larger in size.

When a volcano erupts (potassium volcanic rock eruption), diamonds are brought to the surface. The last time a volcano erupted in such a fashion happened about 100 million years ago, below is an image of potassium volcanic rock.

Diamond mining process

Geologists often use termites to find kimberlite pipes because termites when building their nests often dig for rocks and minerals, and diamonds are often found near that area. Kimberlite is present in the Earth's crust, in vertical structures such as kimberlite pipes. Kimberlite pipes are the most important source of diamonds mined today.

To get to the place where there are diamonds at the bottom of the kimberlite pipe, one must exploit all the rock above, open-pit mining operations (pit-mining) begin. Open pit mining is the most common method of diamond mining. Heavy machinery, hydraulic excavators, trucks are used to mine diamonds from kimberlite pipes.

See more : Diamond ring

People often mine open pit when it is expected that diamonds will be near the surface or covered by a thin layer of sand and gravel.

In diamond mining, underground mining operations are the most complex. This type of mining method will be used based on calculations of the nature, shape and size of the kimberlite deposit.

Diamonds can also be mined from the seabed using marine mining methods (horizontal mining and vertical mining). The most successful business in finding profits from the seabed today is probably DeBeers, the company that accounts for 40% of the world's diamond market. As one of the pioneering companies in shifting from land-based mining to ocean bottom mining, De Beers was also the first company to develop a suitable technology for digging. Collect diamond ore at a depth of 150m below the water surface.

Chemical formula of diamond

The chemical formula of diamonds is made up of carbon (C) atoms. In nature, the C atoms to form diamonds are found in plants and carbonates. When buried in geological layers, they turn into coal, peat, coal, graphite... When the environment has enough conditions such as many degrees of heat and pressure. Then the carbon will be compressed tightly together to form diamond in a cubic crystal system.

The chemical formula of diamonds is made up of carbon (C) atoms.

Diamond crystal structure

Diamond crystals have a cubic structure so they are highly symmetrical and contain quaternary carbon atoms. Each C atom will bond with 4 other C atoms that are closest in position. So diamonds have many unique properties.

Due to the relatively high density of atoms, the stone has a very tight structure, along with a hardness of up to 10 Mohs. Hardness ranks first among natural and artificial gemstones.

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